Africa south of the Sahara
4 million BC: Earliest humans in East AfricaWorld Prehistory Chronology
ca. 2,000 BC: Agriculture is developed in the Niger River Valley.
- 3100-2686 BC: The Early Dynastic Period
- 2686-2181 BC: The Old Kingdom
- 2181-2040 BC: The First Intermediate Period
- 2133-1786 BC: The Middle Kingdom
- 1786-1567 BC: The Second Intermediate Period
- 1567-1085 BC: The New Kingdom
- 1085-341 BC: The Late Dynastic Period
- 332-30 BC: The Ptolemaic Period
- 200 BC: The height of Nok culture
- c. 100 BC: Bantu people introduce iron working into the area south of the Sudan.
- AD 1: Beginnings of the East African city-states.
- 100: Beginnings of Bantu migration.
- AD 400: Jenne-Jeno in Nigeria
- 300-700: The Kingdom of Axum
- c. 900: Beginnings of the Sudanese kingdoms.
- c.900-1100: The Kingdom of Ghana
- c. 1200: Beginning of the Hausa city-states.
- c. 1200-1450: The Kingdom of Mali.
- 900s-1400s: Great Zimbabwe
- c. 1450: Oyo Empire is founded.
- 1460-1591: Songhai Empire
- 1479: Portuguese build Elmina Castle on West African Coast.
- 1497: Vasco da Gama [Portuguese] sails to East Africa.
- 1652: Dutch settle at the Cape of Good Hope.
- 1780: First "Kaffir War" between the Bantus and the Boers in South Africa.
- 1785-1828: Shaka Zulu
- 1808: The British and the United States abolish the slave trade.
- 1821: Liberia is formed by returning ex-slaves.
- 1885: Congress of Berlin partitions Africa among the European powers
- 1948: First apartheid legislation in South Africa
- 1957: Ghana is first independent African nation
- 1960: Congo is granted independence from Belgium
- 1962: Algeria gains independence from France
- 1963: Organization for African Unity is formed
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