Foraging Societies: 12,000 to 3,000 BC
- ca. 14,500 BC: Asian migrants cross Bering Land bridge and enter North America
- ca.12,000 BC: Migrants have made their way all the way to Chile
- 12,000 to 8,000 BC: Ice Age Foraging Peoples
- 8,000 to 6,000 BC: Early Archaic Period
- 6,000 to 3,000 BC: Middle Archaic Period
Settled Agriculture: 5,000 BC
- 5000 BC: Agriculture begins in Mexico.
- 2000 BC: Huastecas and other proto-Maya cultures in Mexico
Early Ceremonial Centers: 2,000 BC to 700 BC
- 2000 BC: Development of the first Peruvian ceremonial centers.
- 1500 BC: Beginnings of Olmec civilization.
Urban Society: 900 BC to AD 400
- 900 BC: Chavins unite Peru.
- 800 BC: Olmecs unite Mesoamerica.
- 400 BC- 1500: Zapotecs (Monte Alban, Mixtla)
- 400 BC- 1000: Nazca coastal culture, western South America
- 300: End of Olmec civilization.
Early Empires: 300-1400
- 31 BC: First dated Olmec monument, early glyph writing
- 00-300: Pre-classic Maya
- ca. 50: Maya leave first written records in Western Hemisphere
- 100: Sun temple built at Teotihuacan
- 300-600: Teotihuacan (Toltec) empire.
- 217: Carbon dating of oldest Pueblo roof beam, Southwest
- 300-900: Classic Maya
- c. 550: Chichen Itza is founded.
- 600-800: Huari and Tiahuanaco empires.
- 642: Palenque built
- 200-900: Teotihuacan expands
- 400-1000: Tiahuanaco empire, Andean South America
- 890: Maya produce first book in the Americas,
- ca 850-900: Great Mayan cities of Central America deserted
- 1300: End of Mayan civilization.
- 1400-1519: Aztec empire.
- 1438-1538: Inca Empire.
- 1519-1810: Spanish Empire
- 1810: Venezuela declares independence from Spain.
- 1819: Bolivar becomes president of Gran Columbia.
- 1823: Mexico becomes a republic.
- 1898: Spanish-American War begins.
- 1910: Mexican Revolution
- 1938: Cardenas nationalizes foreign oil companies in Mexico
- 1959: Cuban Revolution
- 1994: Chiapas Rebellion begins
This chronology based on the work of
Richard W. Slatta [Slatta@ncsu.edu]
Professor of History
North Carolina State University
Used by permission.
Central South America
Text copyright 1998-2004 by ThenAgain. All rights reserved.