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Michael I Romanov

1613-1645

 

Michael Romanov was the Tsar of Russia from 1613 to 1645 and founder of the Romanov dynasty, which ruled Russia until 1917. He was the son of Fedor Nikitich Romanov and was related to the last tsar of the Rurik dynasty, Fedor I. The Romanovs are descendents of a Muscovite boyar, Audrey Ivanovich Kobyla. They acquired their name, Romanov, from Roman Yuriev, whose daughter was Anastasiya Romanova, the first wife of Ivan IV the Terrible. When the zemskii sobor (assembly of the land) met in 1613 to elect a new tsar after the Time of Troubles, (A period of chaotic internal disorders, foreign invasions, and a rapid succession of rulers following the death of Fedor I) it chose Michael I Romanov was tsar of Russia.

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The Times of Trouble (1598-1613) started when the boyars assassinated the "False Dmitry" and replaced him with a powerful nobleman, Vasily Shuysky. The wealthy merchants and the boyars supported Shuysky. However, he had to face many rebellions, such as one led by a former serf, Ivan Isayevich Bolotnikov. The Muscovites were disappointed with Shuysky. In 1610, Sigismund continued the Polish invasion of Russia. Nevertheless, in 1612, Prince Dmitry Mikhaylovich Pozharsky led an army of landowners, Cossacks and merchants against the invader and defeated them.

In 1612, Prince Dmitrii Pozharzkii defeated Poland. It gave the Russian people a new outlook of hope. They wanted their country to do better, and to achieve this, they came to a conclusion that they must have a great leader. The quest for a new czar began, with letters being sent throughout the land for elected representatives. form farmland to noble estates, these deputies came to Moscow to select the new czar. This was a moment of religious influence in Russia, so when they arrived, they spent three days in fasting and prayer before making their final decisions.

It was decided that 16 year old Michael Romanov was the best choice for czar. His ancestor had been the wife of another czar, and both his parents had been very influential until Boris Godunov sent them to the monasteries to break their power. The only dilemma was that Michael was no where to be found. He was finally found in the same monastery where his mother was hiding. Messengers were sent to tell him of the decision made in Moscow.

Michael was definitely aware of the hardships of being czar of Russia, especially at this time with all the problems Russia had. He told the messengers that he did not want to become czar. He was reminded that if he did not become czar, Moscow and the whole country would fall apart by the struggle for power. Michael's love and allegiance for his country made him agree and decided to go to the capital.

As Michael approached Moscow on May 2, 1613, all the men in the city went out to greet him and show their support. Several weeks later, Michael's coronation took place in the Dormition Cathedral. He dressed in royal purple, wore the crown as a symbol of service, and held the scepter and orb as a symbol of his authority.

He prayed at the altar and spoke to the people about the problems they had. Michael was anointed then accepted the sacrament of the body and blood of Jesus Christ. He read a prayer for the people in his kingdom, and they said one for him. Now begins the reign of young Michael I Romanov.

They helped to restore order to Russia, reduce peasantry to serfdom, and obtained peace with both Sweden (Treaty of Stolbovo, 1617) and Poland (Truce of Deulino, 1618). Michael's father, who was forced to become a monk under the name of Philaret, returned to Russia in 1619. He became Patriarch of the church and also dominated much of Michael's government. His involvement in the government helped increase diplomatic, commercial, and cultural contact with Western Europe. In 1633, Michael's father died. Then, Michael's maternal relatives again protuberantly took part in the government again until he died in 1645. He left the throne to his son Alexis.


Bibliography:

1. St. Petersburg Times. http://www.sptimes.com

2. House of Romanov. http://home.icon.fi/~timhaapa/index.htm

3. Michael Romanov http://cyberprof.bradley.edu/~courses/Roach/HIS103/LECT/lecture04.html

 


Edited by James Natividad
Research by Andrea Thomann
Written by Lalin Nuth

Text copyright 1996-2016 by ThenAgain. All rights reserved.

 

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