- c. 570: Birth of Muhammad
- 622: The Hegira: Muhammad flees to Medina
- 630: Muhammad captures Mecca
- 632: Muhammad dies.
- 680: Death of Mu'awiya, who is succeeded by his son, Yazid.
- 685-687: Shi'ite revolt in Iraq.
- 711: Conquest of Spain.
- 717-718: Attempt to conquer Constantinople.
- 732: Battle of Tours.
- 751: Battle of Talas: Arabs learn papermaking from Chinese prisoners of war
- 765: A school of medicine is established in Baghdad.
- 750-850: The Four orthodox schools of law are established.
- 850-875: The Tradition is formalized.
- 1010: Firdawsi completes his Epic of Kings, the great epic poem of Persia.
- 1055-1250: Expansion of Islam under the Seljuks and Christian responses.
- 1258: Mongols sack Baghdad. Abbasid Caliphate ends.
910-1171: Fatimid Caliphate in Egypt (Cairo)
1379-1401: Tamerlane establishes an empire in Persia, Iraq and Syria
- ca. 1243: Turkish nomads settle in Asia Minor
- 1299-1326: Osman I
- 1402: Tamerlane defeats Ottomans at Ankara
- 1453: Constantinople is conquered.
- 1520-1566: Suleiman II the Magnificent
- 1571: The Battle of Lepanto
- 1703-1730: Cultural revival under Ahmed III
- 1774: Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca
- 1822-1830: Greek War of Independences
- 1853-1856: The Crimean War
- 1876: The Ottoman Constitution is promulgated
- 1914: The Ottoman Empire enters World War I