timeline of world history

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Rise and Fall of Empires




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Mediterranean Chronology

The End of the Roman Republic

149-31 BC

    The End of Reforms: 149-121 BC

    • 133: Tiberius Gracchus, leader of a reform movement, is murdered.
    • 123-121: Gaius Gracchus, Tiberius Gracchus's brother, is also murdered.

    The Civil War: 100-63 BC

    • 107-100: Marius is Consul, that is, he is head of the Roman army.
    • 106: Marius begins his military reforms.
    • 88: Sulla, consul, marches on Rome.
    • 87: Marius seizes Rome
    • 82-79: Sulla, as consul, institutes a series of constitutional reforms.
    • 73-71: The slave revolt led by Spartacus.
    • 70: Pompey and Crassus are consuls.
    • 63: Cataline's conspiracy.

    The Career of Julius Caesar: 60-31 BC

    • 60-53: Julius Caesar, Pompey and Crassus form the first Triumvirate
    • 59: Julius Caesar is consul.
    • 58-50: Julius Caesar conquerors Gaul.
    • 49: Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon
    • 49-45: Julius Caesar and Pompey fight a Civil War. Pompey is defeated.
    • 46: Julius Caesar becomes Consul for Life.
    • 44: Julius Caesar is assassinated.
    • 43-36: Octavian, Mark Anthony and Lepidus form the Second Triumvirate.
    • 31: Octavian defeats Mark Anthony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium.

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources

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