- 753 BC: Traditional date for the founding of Rome. Agricultural settlements on the Palatine hill.
- 616-509 BC: Etruscan kings rule Rome.
- c. 500-275 BC: Conquest of the Italian peninsula. Beginnings of the system of roads.
- c. 390 BC: Rome is sacked by Gauls and rebuilt.
- 264-241 BC: First Punic War
- 218-202 BC: Second Punic War
- 146 BC: Third Punic War and the conquest of Greece.
- 133-31 BC: Civil War and the End of the Republic.
- 27 BC-AD 14: Augustus as Princip.
- 14-68: Julio-Claudian Emperors.
- 69-96: Flavian Emperors
- 96-180: Five Good Emperors
- 180-284: Crisis of the Third Century
- 284-378: Reforms of the Late Empire
- 312-867: Formation of a Christian Empire
- 378-476: Decline of the Roman Empire in the West
- 410: Rome is sacked by the Visigoths. The remainder of the Roman Empire is now referred to as the Byzantine Empire.