- 6000 BC: Jericho
- 3500 BC: Sumerians settle in Mesopotamia
- 3500-2340 BC: Sumerian Civilization
- 2340-1900 BC: Akkadian Empire
- 1900-1100 BC: Babylonian Empire
- 1100-1200 BC: Assyrian Empire (First Period of Ascendancy)
- ca. 1400 BC: The Large Empires of the Ancient Near East are weakened
- ca. 1200 BC: The Era of the Smaller Civilizations.
- ca. 750 BC: Revival of the Mesopotamian Empires.
- 745-612 BC: Period of Assyrian dominance
- 625-585 BC: Period of Neo-Babylonian (Chaldean) dominance
- 550-323 BC: Persian Empire.
- 323-146 BC: Hellenistic Kingdoms
- c. 250 BC to AD 225: Parthian Empire.
- 146 BC to AD 1453: Rome and Byzantium
- 226-642: Sassanid Persia.
- 661-750: Ommayad Caliphate.
- 750-1258: Abbasid Caliphate.
- 1350-1918: Ottoman Empire
- 1501-1723: Safavid Empire
- 1917: Balfour Declaration on Palestine
- 1923: Republic of Turkey is established
- 1925: Pahlavi dynasty in Iran
- 1932: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is established
- 1956: Nassar Nationalizes the Suez Canal.
- 1973: The Yom Kippur War
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