- ca. 1243: Turkish nomads settle in Asia Minor
- 1299-1326: Osman I
- 1301: Osman declares himself sultan and establishes the Ottoman Empire
- 1345: Seljuk Turks first cross the Bosporus
- 1389: Ottomans defeat Serbs at Kosovo
- 1402: Tamerlane defeats Ottomans at Ankara
- 1451-1481: Mohammed the Conqueror
- 1520-1566: Sulayman II the Magnificent
- 1526: Battle of Mohacs
- 1529: First Siege of Vienna
- 1571: The Battle of Lepanto
- 1641-1687: Reign of Mohammad IV
- 1703-1730: Cultural revival under Ahmed III
- 1774: Trety of Kucuk Kaynarca
- 1792: Treaty of Jassy
- 1793: Selim III proclaims the "New Order"
- 1798-1799: Napoleon attempts to conquer Egypt.
- 1804: First Serbian Uprising.
- 1815: Second Serbian Uprising.
- 1822-1830: Greek War of Independence
- 1826: Massacre of Janissaries; Ottoman fleet is sunk at Navarino
- 1829: Treaty of Adrinople
- 1839: Hatt-i Serif of Gulhane; the Tanzimat Period begins.
- 1841: The Straits Convention
- 1853-1856: The Crimean War
- 1876: The Ottoman Constitution is proclaimed.
- 1878: Congress of Berlin: Serbia and Montenegro are granted independence. Bulgaria is granted broad autonomy.
- 1908: The Comittee of Union and Progress (The Young Turks) is formed.
- The Ottoman Constitution is restored.
- Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina
- 1912-1913: The First Balkan War
- 1913: The Second Balkan War
- 1914: The Ottoman Empire enters World War I as one of the Central Powers.
- 1915: The Armenian Massacre
- 1919-1924: End of the Ottoman Empire
- 1919: Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) lands at Samsun
- 1923: The sultanate is abolished and Turkey is declared a republic
- 1924: The office of caliph is abolished