World History Chronology

Technology Chronology

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Era of Biological Energy Sources

Era of Inanimate Energy Sources

Era of Fossil Fuel Energy Sources


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The Era of Biological Energy Sources

9000 BC to AD 600

  • 9000 BC: Sheep are domesticated in the Middle East.
  • 7400 BC: Corn is domesticated in the Oaxaca Valley.
  • 7000 BC: Wheat is domesticated in Mesopotamia.
  • 6500 BC: Cattle are domesticated in Mesopotamia.
  • 6000 BC: Copper artifacts are common in the Middle East.
  • 5000 BC: Barley is domesticated in Egypt.
  • 4400 BC: Potatoes are domesticated in Peru and Bolivia.
  • 4000 BC: Light wooden plows are used in Mesopotamia.
  • 3500 BC: Kiln-fired bricks and pots are made in Mesopotamia.
  • 3500 BC: Irrigation is developed in Mesopotamia.
  • 3200 BC: Wheeled vehicles are used in Uruk.
  • 3000 BC: Square-sailed ships used in Egypt.
  • 3000 BC: Draft oxen are used in Mesopotamia.
  • 3000 BC: Potter's wheel used in Mesopotamia.
  • 2800 BC: Pyramids are built in Egypt.
  • 2500 BC: Bronze is developed in Mesopotamia.
  • 2000 BC: Horse drawn vehicles are used in Egypt.
  • 1700 BC: Horse riding is developed on the Eurasia steppes.
  • 1500 BC: Copper is smelted in China.
  • 1500 BC: Rice paddies are developed in China.
  • 1400 BC: Iron working is developed in the Middle East.
  • 1300 BC: Horse drawn vehicles are developed in China.
  • 800 BC: Mounted archers are developed on the Eurasian steppes.
  • 600 BC: Archimedean screw used for irrigation in Egypt.
  • 400 BC: Cross bow is developed in China.
  • 300 BC: Stirrups are used in China.
  • 150 BC: Iron moldboard plows in use in China.
  • 100 BC: Waterwheels used in Greece and Rome.
  • 100 BC: Beginnings of collar harness in China.


Primary Sources

Secondary Sources

This chronology based on: Vaclav Smil, Energy in World History (Boulder, CO; Westview Press, 1994) pp. 259-267.

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