World History Chronology

Technology Chronology

Then Again

Era of Biological Energy Sources

Era of Inanimate Energy Sources

Era of Fossil Fuel Energy Sources


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The Era of Inanimate Energy Sources

600 to 1600

  • 600: Windmills used in Iran.
  • 850: Triangular sails used in the Mediterranean.
  • 900: Collar harness and horseshoes are common in Europe.
  • 980s: Canal pound locks used in China.
  • 1000: Waterwheels are widespread in Europe.
  • 1040: Gunpowder in China.
  • 1088: Su Song's Clock
  • 1100: The English long bow is developed.
  • 1150: Beginnings of cathedral building in Europe.
  • 1200: Inca system of roads are begun.
  • 1280: The canon is developed in China.
  • 1300: Gunpowder and cannons are introduced to Europe.
  • 1327: Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal is completed.
  • 1400: Draft horse is used in Europe.
  • 1400: Windmills are used for drainage in the Netherlands.
  • 1400: Blastfurnaces are used in the Rhine region.
  • 1550: Large fulled-rigged sailingships with guns are used in Western Europe.
  • 1600: Ball bearings are developed in Western Europe.


Primary Sources

Secondary Sources

This chronology based on: Vaclav Smil, Energy in World History (Boulder, CO; Westview Press, 1994) pp. 259-267.

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