- 1598: Edict of Nantes grants freedom of worship to the Huguenots.
- 1610: Henry IV is assassinated; Louis XIII becomes King of France; Maria de'Medici is Regent.
- 1614: Last meeting of the Estates General of France until 1789.
- 1616: Cardinal Richelieu becomes Prime Minister in France.
- 1619: Conflict in France between Maria de'Medici and Cardinal Richelieu
- 1620: French nobility revolt against French King.
- 1621: Huguenot rebellion against Louis XIII of France.
- 1622: Treaty of Montpellier ends rebellion by French Huguenots.
- 1627: Renewed Huguenot uprisings in France.
- 1628: Siege of La Rochelle ends.
- 1642: Mazarin becomes Prime Minister in France.
- 1643: Louis XIV becomes King of France.
- 1649-1652: War of the Fronde
- 1685: Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes.
- 1608: Protestant Union formed in the Rhineland.
- 1618: Defenestration of Prague: Beginning of Thirty Years War.
- 1620: War between Sweden and Poland--Gustavus Adolphus takes Livonia.
- 1620: Battle of the White Mountain--Major Catholic and Imperial victory in the Thirty Years War.
- 1625: Wallenstein becomes head of the Imperial Forces.
- 1630: Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden enters Germany.
- 1632: Gustavus Adolphus defeats Wallenstein at Luetzen, but dies in the battle.
- 1634: Wallenstein is assassinated.
- 1635: Peace of Prague--Ends conflict between the Holy Roman Emperor and the Kingdom of Saxony. Thirty Years War continues, however, between Sweden and France against the House of Hapsburg.
- 1648: The Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War.
- 1683: The Siege of Vienna
- 1603: James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England upon the death of Elizabeth I.
- 1605: The Gun Powder Plot
- 1611: James I of England dissolves Parliament.
- 1622: James I dissolves Parliament.
- 1624: James I's last Parliament.
- 1624: England declares war on Spain.
- 1625: Charles I becomes King of England.
- 1629: Charles I dissolves Parliament. It does not meet again until 1640.
- 1640: The "Short Parliament" and the "Long Parliament" in England (until 1653).
- 1641: Catholic Rebellion in Ireland; Massacre of Ulster Protestants.
- 1642: English Civil War begins.
- 1646: English Civil War ends with the defeat of the Royal army.
- 1647: Charles I of England is taken prisoner.
- 1649: Charles I of England is beheaded; England is declared a Commonwealth.
- 1653: Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector in England.
- 1658: Richard Cromwell succeeds his father as Lord Protector in England.
- 1660: Parliament invites Charles II to return to England.
- 1688-1689: Glorious Revolution: James II is dethroned and William and Mary become co-regents