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The Scientific Revolution


  • 1543: Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543) publishes De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, which argues that the Sun is the center of the Solar System.
  • 1543: Andrea Vesalius (1514-1564) publishes Concerning the Structure of the Human Body, the first modern anatomical text.
  • 1600: William Gilbert (1540-1603) publishes Concerning the Magnet.
  • 1605: Francis Bacon (1561-1626) publishes Advancement of Learning.
  • 1609: Astronomia Nova is published by Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), in which he presented his first two Laws of Planetary Motion.
  • 1610: Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) publishes Sidereal Messenger, describing his observations using the telescope.
  • 1619: Kepler publishes his Third Law in Harmonia Mundi.
  • 1628: William Harvey (1578-1657) publishes On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals, in which he proves that the heart circulates blood throughout the body.
  • 1632: Galileo publishes Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, in which he compares the Copernican and Ptolemaic solar systems.
  • 1637: Rene Descartes publishes his Discourse on Method, in which he lays the foundation for modern philosophy.
  • 1644-9: Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655), in a series of works, revives the traditions of Epicureanism and Skepticism.
  • 1660: Robert Boyle (1627-1691) publishes New Experiments Physico-Mechanical Touching the Spring of the Air, in which he states his laws of gases.
  • 1662: The Royal Society of London is founded.
  • 1666: The French Academy of Science is founded.
  • 1677: Anton von Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), using a microscope, discovers male spermatoza.
  • 1678: Christian Huygens (1629-1695) proposes the wave theory of light.
  • 1687: Isaac Newton (1642-1727) publishes his Principia Mathematica.
  • 1704: Isaac Newton publishes his Optics.
  • 1735: Carolus Linnaeus publishes his Systema Naturae, which establishes the science of taxonomy.
  • 1789: Antoine Lavoisier publishes his treatise on chemistry, laying the foundation for the modern theory of chemical elements.


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