- 1519: Charles I of Spain becomes Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V.
- 1520: Suleiman the Magnificent becomes Sultan of Turkey.
- 1521: Hornando Cortes conquers the Aztec Empire.
- 1524: Peasants Revolt in Southern Germany.
- 1526: Battle of Mohacs: Ottoman Turks defeat Hungary, capture Buda.
- 1527: Troops from the Holy Roman Empire sack Rome.
- 1529: Second Diet of Speyer: The Lutheran minority becomes known as "Protestants."
- 1533: Pizzaro executes the Inca and claims control of Inca lands.
- 1534: Anabaptist State at Muenster, led by John of Leiden.
- 1545: Truce of Adrianople between Holy Roman Empire and Ottoman Turks.
- 1546: Schmalkaldic War: Charles V against an alliance of Protestant princes.
- 1555: Peace of Augsburg
- 1563: Peace of Ambois: Huguenots granted limited toleration.
- 1566: Calvinists riot in the Netherlands.
- 1567: Duke of Alba establishes an Inquisition to stop Calvinism in the Netherlands.
- 1572: Dutch War of Independence begins.
- 1572: St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre: begins Fourth War of Religion in France.
- 1579: Union of Utrecht--founding the Dutch Republic.
- 1587: Mary, Queen of Scots, is executed.
- 1588: The defeat of the Spanish Armada.
- 1593: Henry IV of France accepts Roman Catholicism.
- 1598: Edict of Nantes grants freedom of worship to the Huguenots.
- 1478-1834: Spanish Inquisition